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Al-Ghazaly – The Man of Da`wah

The best greeting I can start with is the greeting of Islam, and the greeting of Islam is peace. So, peace and mercy be upon you. I thank those who arranged this symposium in the memory of our Sheikh, Al-Ghazaly, may Allah bless his soul and be pleased with him. I wish to thank the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), the Royal Conference for Research on Islamic Civilization (Al al-Bait Organization) and The Society of Islamic Studies and Research. This is an example of cooperation that should be repeated and "help you one another onto righteousness and pious duty" (al-Ma'idah; verse 2). Cooperation always produces good.

I don't know how I can talk to you about Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. How can I summarize half a century in a few minutes? How can I put the sea in a bottle?
It is not easy to talk about our Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. And I am saying 'our Sheikh' even if he is just nine years older than me. So, the difference in our ages is not a lot, but I assert that I am a student of his. I got to know him first by reading his articles and then by reading his books, since his first book, Islam and Economy, and his second book, Islam and Social Systems. I also admired his articles. At that time, I was only busy with literature and poetry. All my readings were focused into that direction. But when I read Al-Ghazaly's articles in the Muslim Brotherhood weekly magazine, I found him to be an astoundingly eloquent writer. At that time, I was not aware that he was an Azhari Sheikh. Sheikhs have a different style of writing and discuss different issues from him. They simply have a completely different spirit. Sheikh Al-Ghazaly used to write under different titles. Such examples are his Free Thoughts, Pages of Glory, and The Underprivileged People. This is not a Sheikh's style. That is why I never imagined that Al-Ghazaly of the Muslim Brotherhood magazine was an Azhari Sheikh. One day he signed 'Mohamed Al-Ghazaly Al-Wa'ez' (the preacher). I asked some brothers, "Is he from the Al-Wa'ez family or is he really a Wa'ez (preacher)?" They answered, "Yes, he is a preacher. That is his job." I asked, "Is he Azhari?" They replied, "Yes, he is a Sheikh and he even wears an Al-Azhar uniform." This made me love him more and read more of his articles. Al-Azhar, at that time, was proud of all its men and Sheikhs.

It wasn't written that I meet him until I was moved from the prison of Tanta. My brother, Ahmed Al-Assaal, who is sitting here among the audience, and some other brothers accompanied me. After our forty days stay in the Tanta prison, we were transferred to the Hike Step Jail. Then, we were to be transferred to Al-Toor Jail in Sinai. On our trip on the ship a quarrel started between some bothers. I saw a young man who was slightly shorter than average without a head cover, who spoke only a few words that put an end to the conflict. He said: "Brothers, you have to be patient, until we reach the place, which is destined to be our place of residence. It is the land from which revelation emerged to liberate a captivated nation, which appeared before Mohamed (pbuh). We are going to the Mountain of Al-Toor." Silence overtook the group. I asked some Ikhwan from Cairo, "Who is this speaker?" They answered, "Don't you know him? He is the al-Azhari Sheikh, Mohamed Al-Ghazaly." I told them, "He is a dear brother to me. I loved this Sheikh before seeing him, and here I am gazing upon him for the first time."

Allah destined that I be with him in the same section of the jail. That jail was originally a place for health examinations for people returning from Hajj. It was divided into sections, and each section was divided into several rooms. Allah destined that I be in the same area that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was appointed an Imam for. I remember his first Khutbah there. It was an angry revolution regarding the living conditions of this prison. The prison guards were stealing the food from the prisoners! And it was just canned food to begin with. We were getting almost nothing to eat. After the Khutbah, Sheikh Al-Ghazaly led a rally inside the prison, the slogan of which was: "Stop the Hunger! Stop Organized Theft!" We were all rallying behind Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. At that time he was thirty-two. The jail administration was startled. Those in charge in it swiftly agreed to negotiate with the prisoners. We ended up receiving all our designated food – on the condition that we cook it ourselves!

This was Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. He would never tolerate oppression. From that incident on, I accompanied Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. It was then Ramadan. I enjoyed my Ramadan, praying behind him. He memorized the entire Qur'an perfectly. He would read the whole Qur'an twice during the month of Ramadan; the one time over the Taraweeh prayers and the other divided over all other prayers. At each prayer, he would begin reading with where he left off with until he finished the Qur'an. Then he would start the whole Qur'an again.

He would make Dua' during every prayer, the Dua' of Calamity. He would just say a few brief words. He would say: "Oh Allah, liberate us by Your power. Heal us with Your mercy. Take care of our affairs with Your kindness. Oh Allah, cover our bodies and make us secure from our fears. Oh Allah, take revenge on our oppressors." Sometimes, he would add a few other words.

I lived with Al-Ghazaly in prison - praying behind him and learning from his lectures. The theme of his lectures was, Islam and Political Oppression. The book that he later published under the same title was a collection of these lectures in prison. He was quite aware that those present were scrutinizing his words. But this never affected what he said. The prisoners' leader was our teacher and Sheikh, Al-Bahey Al-Kholi. Then, Sheikh Al-Bahey was taken out to attend a court case with the Ikhwan Secret Services. The Ikhwan in the jail agreed among themselves that Al-Ghazaly should be their new leader. He was quite young, but proved himself to be a wise and mature leader.

When we were freed we all kept strong ties with Sheikh Al-Ghazaly, and especially I and brother Ahmed Al-Assaal. He invited us to his place many times. We would very much enjoy his food and talk. That was good for our stomachs and our minds. I always accompanied Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. Even when I moved to Qatar, I would seize any opportunity to meet the man. I learned from him, as a Khateeb, as a lecturer, as a teacher, as a speaker, and as a writer.

I wrote a book on the Sheikh while he was still alive as a small gratitude. Many people do not show their gratitude to great men until after their deaths. Islamists, sadly, are guilty of this. Others, as for example Marxists, hail their men, their writers, their poets, and their thinkers. They over-exaggerate the greatness of their people. They adulate each other in the eyes of the public, while Islamists don't do this. The title of my book is Sheikh Al-Ghazaly, as I Knew Him: A Journey of Half a Century. Actually, this book started with an attempt of a group of writers to write a book on the Sheikh. It was planned to be a gift for him on his seventieth birthday. A committee was formed to publish this book, but unfortunately did not complete the project. The only one who published something was Brother Dr. Mohamed Emara. It was a small book titled, Sheikh Al-Ghazaly and his Place as a Thinker. Some articles written by others were gathered and published in a book by Dar Al-Sahwa. My book started off just as an article. The article had become too long. I realized I couldn't write just an article on the Sheikh. It would have to be a book. Although it turned out to be ten chapters long, I still think it falls short of being an adequate portrayal of the Sheikh. Each chapter of this book could easily be expanded into a separate book on Sheikh Al-Ghazaly.

Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was a man of Da`wah before anything else. He was, in fact, a top-level man of Da`wah. Da`wah or a being a caller to Islam was in his blood. He worked in it during the day and dreamt about it during the night. He lived for Da`wah in his past, his present, and his future – his entire self was dedicated to it. When he wrote, gave Khutab or lectures, he was doing it all for the sake of Da`wah. When he attacked, defended, or criticized, he was doing all of this for the benefit of Da`wah. He was a man of Da`wah.

He mastered using all the tools for Da`wah; first, the Holy Qur'an. He memorized the Qur'an as our brother, Dr. Ali Jum'ah said, "As if the Qur'an is one line in front of his eyes." I lived with the Sheikh and saw this myself. He would quote from the Qur'an as if it appeared all on one page in front of him. He considered the Qur'an as the first source for a Da'ee or caller. He believed that it should be the supreme judge over all other sources, such as the Sunnah, Qiyass (comparing of cases), and consensus. He believed that the Qur'an is the pivotal and fundamental source of `Aqeedah and Shari`ah. Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was a man of the Qur'an by all means. He saw things in the verses that nobody else would see easily. I was in Algeria discussing with some students of Justas Malik Bin Nabi, may Allah bless his soul. They were talking about Malik's theory on the tendency of Muslims to fall under imperialism. I told them that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly had first developed this theory. They asked how and where. I replied:

It was in his book, Islam and Economy. Al-Ghazaly wrote: "Nations are occupied when they develop tendencies for mischief. Occupation follows mischief." He went on very eloquently quoting some verses from Surat al-Isra'. These verses mention how mischievous the Children of Israel were and how this lead to their oppression and the occupation of their lands. They were oppressed by the Babylonians, Persians, Romans, etc.

The Sheikh was living with the Qur'an. Since his early books, one can easily conclude he saw in the Qur'an what nobody else was capable of. Dr. Al-Assaal described how Sheikh Al-Ghazaly would dedicate his books. At the beginning of his books he would write his dedications as follows: "In the way of Allah and the underprivileged." He took from the verse: "Why do you not fight in the way of Allah and the underprivileged." Therefore, it is a Qur'anic principle; "In the way of Allah and the underprivileged." He formed a group with some other scholars from Al-Azhar. Among them was Sheikh Khalid Mohamed Khalid (before he went in another direction). This group's slogan was "Religion at the Service of the Masses". This slogan was a response to those who say, "Religion is the Opium of the Masses". Sheikh Al-Ghazaly wrote this slogan on the covers of his first and second book.

Sheikh Al-Ghazaly would judge real life situations, Fiqh, Qiyass, and virtually everything by the words of the Qur'an. That is why he refused to accept anything that contradicts the teachings of the Qur'an. For example, he refused to accept the Hadith that Muslim narrated in his authentic collection, saying that the father of the Prophet (pbuh) is in the hellfire. Unfortunately, some brothers who work in the way of Da`wah quote this Hadith. When the birthday of the Prophet (pbuh) comes, one of the first things they say is: "People you have to know that the father of the Prophet (pbuh) is in the hellfire." Subhannallah, Sheikh Al-Ghazaly said:

This is completely contradictory to what is written in the Qur'an. Allah, glory to Him, said, "We will not punish a people until We (first) send a messenger." Arabs did not receive a messenger according to four verses in the Book of Allah, one verse stating for example, "To warn people, whose fathers were never warned," and another, "We have not sent him a Warner before you."

This is why he refuted this Hadith, even though it is found in the authentic collection of Muslim. The Qur'an, however, is the absolute truth. And Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was a man of the Qur'an. The Qur'an, of which he had immense knowledge of and experience with, was his main tool as a caller.

The second tool was his encyclopedic knowledge. In a book I authored many years ago titled, The Knowledge of the Caller, I mentioned that a caller requires six kinds of knowledge. Among them is the theoretical Islamic knowledge. This includes knowledge on Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh, fundamentals, etc. Another type of knowledge is knowledge in literature. Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was one of the most eloquent writers of the Ummah. He was so keen not to make any grammatical or semantical mistakes. He, like the excellent Azhari scholars, had a firm linguistic and religious background.

This is the reason behind his flawless writing and highly articulate speech. If he ever made a mistake, he would confess and apologize. One day he was so emotional while speaking, and so made a grammatical mistake. He thereafter said, "Strong feelings caused me to err in my speech. I will try not to get so emotional." In his early books he sometimes made grammatical mistakes in conditional statements. When he realized it he simply never repeated this mistake. He used to memorize thousands of verses of poetry. I think he memorized most of the standard Arabic poetical works, if not all of them.

Moreover, he had a solid background in Islamic history, particularly the life story of the Prophet (pbuh). He also had a very strong background in the humanities, as well as knowledge in the sciences. Dr. Fahmi Jud'an said that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was interested in science. Actually, a caller to Allah cannot do without science. Al-Ghazaly also kept up with current affairs occurring around the world and all strains of life. All this knowledge was his second tool after the Book of Allah, glory be to Allah.

Azhari knowledge has certain characteristics. Al-Azhar, like most religious schools and universities, follows the Ash'ari school of Aqeedah. I know that our Salafi brethren do not like this, but I would like to say that the whole Muslim Ummah follows the Ash'ari school. So, has the whole Ummah gone astray? Azhar, Zaituna, Al-Qaraweyah, and Dupand of India are all Ash'aris. All religious schools in the world are Ash'aris. So, Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was an Ash'ari. He just was not fanatical about it. He studied the Ash'ari school during his primary, secondary, and college years. His book, The Aqeedah of the Muslim, was written with a Salafi spirit and an Ash'ari breath. One can notice the Ash'ari touch in the way he defined and organized the chapters of the book. Nobody would be able to avoid this Ash'ari touch. He, moreover, took the opinion of applying both logic and scripts in Aqeedah. I would like to respond to what Dr. Fahmi Jud'an said. Logic is the foundation of scripts. Without logic we cannot accept the scripts. Proof of Prophethood is based on logic. Therefore, if we do not endorse logic, we cannot prove Prophethood or revelation. This is why Al-Ghazaly, and Ash'aris before him, said that logic is the foundation of scripts. A further reason behind his statement is that Ahadeeth coming from a single chain are not a strong enough evidence for proving Aqeedah. Single chains of Ahadeeth are doubtful and never absolute. Our brothers who criticize Sheikh Al-Ghazaly about this should know that the Sheikh did not come up with this means of judging Ahadeeth on his own. Ash'aris, Matridis, and most fundamentalists (Usoolis) are in the same consensus. I mentioned in my book that the Hanbalis' best scholars believe the same. I was referring to Abu Ya'la Al-Faraa's book, Al-Oddah (The Tools), Abu Al-Khattab's book, Al-Tamheed (The Introduction), Ibn Qudamah's book, Al-Rawdah (The Garden), and Ibn Taymeyah's book, Al-Moswaddah (The Draft). The fundamentalists of the Hanbali school, themselves, say that single chain Hadiths are not absolute. This is what follows from straight logic. Single chain Hadiths are weak because they are subjected to mistakes that can occur anywhere along their narration.

Logic is another tool that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly used in Da`wah. I mean by logic, the logic of the faithful. And in this case, logical reasoning works within and respects the Islamic fundamentals.

This is why I would like to comment on the claim that logic has no role to play in some areas. I understood from Dr. Fahmi Jud'an's talk that logic should have no role in determining Shari`ah rules. He said that Shari`ah is an area that should only be understood through revelation. I disagree. Analysis and reasoning has a role to play, and most definitely in this area. The use of logic is not confined to physics. It plays a fundamental role in revelation. There are, for example, issues that are not clearly defined within the revelation; there are issues that the revelation deals with in very general terms. Furthermore, there are issues that the revelation covers; however, the script can be understood in numerous ways. This is where the role of logic is integral to inferring what the script does not explicitly state. The application of reason and logic is crucial for grasping the meaning of the script. Hence, we have several schools of thought. Our Sheikh Al-Ghazaly used logic to understand Shari`ah and `Aqeedah. He, thus, refused to accept those few Ahadeeth that go against common sense. For instance, he refuted Ahadeeth such as, "If it were not for the doings of the Children of Israel, meat would not rot today" and "If it were not for Eve, no wife would betray her husband." These Ahadeeth are in Bukhari. Sheikh Al-Ghazaly said: "Meat rots because this is a scientific fact of life that was valid before and after the Children of Israel. If one leaves meat out at room temperature, it will rot after some time." He added: "Eve did not betray Adam. We do not have this notion in Islam." Thereby, he is using his mind and logic. Some people ridiculed him for this by saying, "How can he deny authentic Ahadeeth?" Some people went as far as accusing him of apostasy because he denied a few "authentic" Ahadeeth. I affirm that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly never denied the Sunnah. On the contrary, he defended it in many of his books, such as in, Fiqh of the Seerah and Un-Islamic Practices. I included in my book quotes of where he defends the Sunnah. He is a man who is defending Islam. But he is a caller who wants to present Islam in a logical, acceptable and sensible way. If a single chain of a Hadith were to contradict with simple facts, he would reject it, even if it were termed authentic.

His rejection of questionable Ahadeeth should never be a reason to discredit Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. During the days of the companions, `Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, refuted some Ahadeeth that some companions claimed to have heard with their own ears. She said, "No, they either did not understand or changed the wording by mistake." She simply saw that these Ahadeeth were contradictory to the Qur'an. And in such situations she would reply to the companions saying, "How can you narrate this while Allah says so and so…."

There are several books that were written on what `Aisha discarded of the other companions' narrations. However, no one ever said that Aisha was an apostate because she rejected those Ahadeeth. In fact, there is not a single Imam who did not reject some Ahadeeth for some reason or another, and for example, Malik and Abu Hanifa. So, it was simply logic that propelled Sheikh Al-Ghazaly to develop his own opinions on many issues. And certainly when he chose an opinion over another, he did not do this out of personal whims. He had, as Dr. Al-Sawwa illustrated, a well-defined methodology and fixed fundamentals. He used common sense, but it never caused him to reject revelation. For instance, when he chose the opinion that the blood money for a woman is equal to that of a man, some people blamed him because they said that his opinion went against the four schools of thought. It is correct that this is not the opinion of the four schools of thought. But it is not a matter of consensus (Ijmaa). Al-Assamm and Ibn Aleya have different opinions, as mentioned by Shawkani. Moreover, all the Hadiths that were cited to support the claim that blood money for a woman is half that of a man's are not authentic. This is agreed upon by top scholars of Hadith. This is the thinking of Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. And it was a useful way of thinking when he used his arguments to counter Communists' attacks.

He always thought that belief is love for the sake of Allah and hate for the sake of Allah. I would like to name this soul a soul of a poet. Sheikh Al-Ghazaly said:

In 1951, the young Indian Islamic caller, Sheikh Abu Hassan Al-Nadawi, visited Egypt. He brought with him several letters that had written. One of them is titled, From the World to the Arabic Peninsula and From Arabs to the World. The world was asking the Arabic Peninsula about its mission it was to carry out. These were very strong and emotional words. Then the Peninsula answered the world. By Allah, no one can serve this Islam unless he/she has the soul of a poet.

I wasn't aware that Al-Ghazaly wrote poetry. But his son, Dr. Alaa, mentioned a while ago that he did write some verses. In any case, he was not a poet. But he had the soul of a poet. His emotions were always flooding out of his heart. A caller must have a lot of emotions. He or she cannot be rigid. Al-Ghazaly reproached some people for "not having a heart." These are people who only cared about the literal meaning of words. These rocks are not capable of calling for Islam. The call for Islam is not rigid. It is a nice and sweet emotion. That is why everybody who knew Sheikh Al-Ghazaly well loved him - even those who held different opinions to his. He was a tolerant, gentle, and witty person. There is not a single time one would sit with him without hearing a joke. He would even sometimes use jokes in Da`wah. Once he was asked if a man could direct his own destiny or if his future was predestined. He answered: "In the West a man directs his own destiny. But in the East one's life is predestined." It is obviously a tough question that is eternally asked. So, he solved the whole problem with this joke. That is how he was.

There is one more tool, with which I will end my talk. It is Sheikh Al-Ghazaly's tremendous spirituality. He had a heart of a Sufi. However, he never joined any Sufi group. I invited him a few years ago to be a visiting professor in Qatar. He stayed three happy years with us. One brother came to visit him, who was a Sufi and previously an Ikhwan, and said: "Oh respected Sheikh, I want you before the end of your life to give a covenant to my Sufi Sheikh." He asked him, "Is there a Sheikh after Hassan Al-Banna? I have taken from Hassan Al-Banna the Islam with all its comprehensiveness, balance, and depth." Yes, Al-Ghazaly learned from Hassan Al-Banna the all-inclusive Islam and lived it. Moreover, he had this tremendous spirituality that anyone who knew him would feel. Whoever reads what he wrote becomes moved by his words. I think he was sincere. I never listened to him without becoming emotional. The man was talking from his heart and expressing his inner thoughts. He never pretended in his speeches or faked his emotions. He acted quite naturally and never mixed the Islam with anything else. In his book, The Spiritual Side of Islam, he explained a part of a book, Words of Wisdom, written by Ibn Ataa Al-Sakandari. This contemporary explanation was wonderfully eloquent.

A conflict once took place between Al-Ghazaly and Ustaz Hassan Al-Hudaybi, which was later resolved. Al-Ghazaly later praised Al-Hudaybi greatly. When Al-Ghazaly discovered that Al-Hudaybi requested in his Will that he be buried in the charity graveyard, he was moved him to write the following:

Hassan Al-Hudaybi (the second general guide of the Ikhwan) died a few days ago. In his will he requested that he be given a quiet funeral and to be buried in the charity graveyard. I was amazed when I heard the latter request. I know Hassan Al-Hudaybi. I reconciliated with him two years before he died. He was a man of dignity and if he believed in something he would give his life for it. I was puzzled why he chose the charity graveyard. I reached a conclusion. He was a well-established judge in a high court. If he had spent his life attacking the Islamic Shari`ah, he would have been given the highest State Award. And if he had served secularism he would have become rich. However, he spent his life serving Islam. This is why he gained nothing but hardship. He was stabbed; just in the same way that Islam was attacked. He was humiliated, also in the same way that Islam was put down. He wanted all this to appear in his record when he meets Allah. Therefore, let him be buried in the charity graveyards with the wretched - those who nobody cares about. Let him be buried with people who died from torture in the military prison. The truth is: The Egyptian nation and the Muslim Ummah in general should revise their actions carefully before the Day of Judgment.

One day a man came to him and said, "Oh Sheikh, I have committed a sin and would like to repent." He replied: "Who knows, maybe this man is closer to Allah than I am. Maybe because he feels guilty towards his sin, he is closer to Allah than I. Who knows. Maybe my actions are insincere." Sheikh Al-Ghazaly had a tremendous spirituality. He would read a poem that Ibn Al-Rumi wrote on night prayers. He would read this poem crying. My dear brothers and sisters, this is Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. He lived his life to call for Islam, defend Islam, and attack the enemies of Islam. His books are either a defense of Islam or attacks on the enemies of Islam. He attacked the Zionists in his book, The Harvest of Pride. He attacked the missionaries in his book, A Cry of Warning from the Missionaries. He attacked orientalists when he replied to Gold Zahir. He also attacked Communists in his book titled, Islam and the Red Invasion, as well as the onslaught of western ideas in Darkness From the West, Imperialism with his Imperialism: Envy, and Greed, and finally national secularism in The Reality of Arabic Nationality and the Myth of the Arabic Revival.

All his books were either an attack or a defense. This was Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. Brothers and sisters, I cannot give him his due credit in just a few words. We are talking about a great leader of thought and a great Imam of Da`wah and Islamic revival. We are talking about a completely distinct school of Da`wah, thought, and reform. We need several research studies to define this school's characteristics, positions, and effects. Al-Ghazaly does not belong to a group or a nation. He belongs to the whole Muslim Ummah.

We are talking about a thinker and scholar, who dedicated his entire life to Islam, and nothing else. He gave Islam his thoughts, heart, tongue, pen, Jihad, and hard work. He struggled all his life under the banner of Islam. His slogan was: "My Prayers, My Rituals, My life, and My Death are for Allah, Lord of all the Worlds. He has No Partner. This I am commanded, and I am the first of those who surrender"(Al-An'Am: 162, 163). Allah was his only friend, judge and Lord.

He lived with a feeling that always filled his heart – that he was a guard for this Deen, and that he should never allow Islam to be attacked. He thought that he should always be on guard from internal and external enemies. He believed that he should not only defend, but attack as well. Attack would be the best means of defense. He never rested, because the fight for the Qur'an and Islam is continuous. He was concerned because Muslim blood was becoming cheap and most of the other guards were asleep, or otherwise; too busy arguing about trivial issues.

It was the Sheikh's destiny to fight on two fronts:

The front of the enemies of Islam; those who hate to see the spread of its light and dislike its return to lead the world. Some of those were international forces that fear or hate Islam. Examples include Zionists, Crusaders, Communists, and Idol worshippers. They have different religions and ways of thinking, but they are unified in their mission to attack Islam and put obstacles in its way. Allah said about them: "And those who disbelieve are protectors of one another" (Al-Anfal: 73) and "And the oppressors are friends to one another" (Al-Jatheyah:19).

Some others, unfortunately, are Muslims carrying Muslim names, like Mohamed, Ahmed, Hassan, Hussain, Omar, and Ali. However, their intentions are evil towards Islam and its callers. They, furthermore, deny its Shari`ah. Islam is their enemy because it teaches against their sinful lusts, their wild oppression, their hidden agendas, and their excessive greed.

The front of the ignorant friends; the ones who harm Islam while they believe that they are serving it. It is those that crush Islam's face in their attempts to swat a fly that settles on its face. They are named, "the misguiding callers." They make people busy with branches and not the fundamentals, with particulars and not the entirety, the controversial and not the agreed upon, and the works of the organs and not the works of the hearts.

He complained about callers, most of who cause disaster and harm for Islam. They never read or struggle. The few facts they know are not put into their correct contexts. The pains of the Ummah do not affect them. They continue to debate historical events. They do not recognize what is happening in the world; nor do they learn of the incredible leaps of change occurring within life on earth.

The body that is depleted of blood cells will fall. Similarly, the mind that is void of knowledge cannot fulfill the obligations of Jihad or truth.

The danger to the future of Islam, its nation, and its revival is those, who the Sheikh addressed in his final books. He hoped that they would learn and wake up. He wished that they would become less proud in their opinions and cease despising others they consider below them. He wished that they would learn to be humble with the believers, to respect the elderly, and to be kind to the younger ones.

I would like to say that Sheikh Al-Ghazaly was not flawless. He was a normal human being. Nevertheless, he was a man of Islam. He lived for Islam and he died for Islam. He remained in the battlefields until the very end and died with his sword in his hand. This was Sheikh Al-Ghazaly. If people wish to dwell on his mistakes, this does not discredit him. In the Hadith: "Water more than two Qullas (a measurement) can never be dirty." What if it were a sea?

You might have a different opinion from him in minor or major issues, and in few or many issues. However, if you got to know him well, you could not help loving and respecting him. You would certainly feel how sincere he is to Allah, how honest and how straightforward he is, and how keen he is to defend Islam.

He became quickly upset when somebody attacked Islam. When he was upset he was like a sea that floods and a volcano that burns. He hated oppression against himself or against any human being. He could not tolerate deviation, especially if it is disguised in a cloak of piety and religion. Therefore, if he witnessed oppression or deviation, from his point of view at least, he could not remain silent or permit his pen to be idle. He would angrily attack, regardless of the consequences. The Sheikh, however, never overstepped his boundaries in his enmity. He would also never slander his enemies or wish them harm.

The Sheikh was at the same time able to quickly cool down. He would return to the truth upon realizing the extent of his anger. He would not be ashamed to announce his errors made in any particular issue. This is a kind of bravery that is very rare.

May Allah bless Sheikh Al-Ghazaly's soul and gather him with the pious of His servants. May Allah reward him with the best reward He gives to knowledgeable leaders. May Allah reward him for what he did for this Ummah and this Deen with the highest reward. May Allah take care of his family and children the best way He does with sincere people. I ask Allah to guide us to follow the Sheikh in his footsteps, to adhere to the truth, to resist falsehood, and to call to Allah. "Who is best in speech than he who calls to Allah, does good deeds, and says I am among Muslims."

Finally, I ask Allah to forgive you and me and to bless our master, Mohamed, his family, and companions. And may the peace, blessings, and mercy of Allah be upon you.

This speech was delivered by Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi at a workshop held in `Amman, Jordan on Thursday 4th Safar, 1417 H (June 20th, 1996)

Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi

Salahuddin dibesarkan sama seperti anak-anak orang Kurdis biasa. Pendidikannya juga seperti orang lain, belajar ilmu-ilmu sains di samping seni peperangan dan mempertahankan diri. Tiada seorangpun yang menyangka sebelum ia menguasai Mesir dan menentang tentera Salib bahawa anak Kurdis ini suatu hari nanti akan merampas kembali Palestin dan menjadi pembela akidah Islamiah yang hebat. Dan tiada siapa yang menyangka pencapaiannya demikian hebat sehingga menjadi contoh dan perangsang memerangi kekufuran hingga ke hari ini.

Stanley Lane Poole (1914) seorang penulis Barat menyifatkan Salahuddin sebagai anak seorang governor yang memilliki kelebihan daripada orang lain tetapi tidak menunjukkan satupun tanda-tanda ia akan menjadi orang hebat pada masa depan. Akan tetapi ia menunjukkan akhlak yang mulia.

Walau bagaimanapun Allah telah mentakdirkannya untuk menjadi pemimpin besar pada zamannya dan Allah telah menyediakan dan memudahkan jalan-jalannya untuk menjadi pemimpin agung itu. Ketika ia menjadi tentera Al-Malik Nuruddin, Sultan Aleppo, ia diperintahkan untuk pergi ke Mesir. Pada masa itu Mesir diperintah oleh sebuah kerajaan Syi'ah yang tidak bernaung di bawah khalifah. Bahauddin bin Shaddad, penasihat utama Salahuddin telah menulis bahawa Salahuddin sangat berat dan memaksa diri untuk pergi ke Mesir bagaikan orang yang hendak di bawa ke tempat pembunuhan (Bahauddin, 1234).

Tetapi itulah sebenarnya apa yang dimaksudkan dengan firman Allah, "Boleh jadi kamu membenci sesuatu, padahal ia amat baik bagimu, dan boleh jadi kamu menyukai sesuatu, padahal ia amat buruk bagimu" (Al-Baqarah:216)

Pertukaran Hidup Salahuddin al Ayubi
Ketika Salahuddin menguasai Mesir, ia tiba-tiba berubah. Ia yakin bahawa Allah telah mempertanggung jawabkan kepadanya satu tugas yang amat berat yang tak mungkin dapat dilaksanakan jika ia tidak bersungguh-sungguh. Bahauddin telah menuliskan dalam catatannya bahwa Salahuddin sebaik-baik sahaja ia menjadi pemerintah Mesir. Dunia dan kesenangannya telah lenyap dari pandangan matanya. Dengan hati yang rendah dan syukur kepada Allah ia telah menolak godaan-godaan dunia dan segala kesenangannya (Bahauddin,1234).

Bahkan Stanley Lane Poole(1914) telah menuliskan bahwa Salahuddin mengubah cara hidupnya kepada yang lebih keras. Ia bertambah wara' dan menjalani hidup yang lebih berdisiplin dan sederhana. Ia mengenepikan corak hidup senang dan memilih corak hidup "Spartan" yang menjadi contoh kepada tenteranya. Ia menumpukan seluruh tenaganya untuk satu tujuan yaitu untuk membina kekuasaan Islam yang cukup kuat untuk menghalau orang kafir dari tanah air Islam.

Salahuddin pernah berkata, "Ketika Allah menganugerah kan aku bumi Mesir, aku yakin Dia juga bermaksud Palestin untukku. Ini menyebabkan ia memenangkan perjuangan Islam. Sehubungan dengan ia telah menyerahkan dirinya untuk jalan jihad.

Semangat Jihadnya
Fikiran Salahuddin sentiasa tertumpu kepada jihad di jalan Allah. Bahauddin telah mencatatkan bahawa semangat Salahuddin yang berkobar-kobar untuk berjihad menentang tentera Salib telah menyebabkan jihad menjadi tajuk perbincangan yang paling digemarinya. Ia sentiasa meluangkan seluruh tenaganya untuk memperkuat pasukan tenteranya, mencari mujahid-mujahid dan senjata untuk tujuan berjihad.

Jika ada sesiapa yang bercakap kepadanya berkenaan jihad ia akan memberikan sepenuh perhatian. Sehubungan dengan ini ia lebih banyak di dalam khemah perang daripada duduk di istana bersama sanak keluarga. Siapa sahaja yang menggalakkannya berjihad akan mendapat kepercayaannya. Siapa sahaja yang memerhatikannya akan dapat melihat apabila ia telah memulakan jihat melawan tentera salib ia akan menumpahkan seluruh perhatiannya kepada persiapan perang dan menaikkan semangat tenteranya.

Dalam medan peperangan ia bagaikan seorang ibu yang garang kehilangan anak tunggal akibat dibunuh oleh tangan jahat. Ia akan bergerak dari satu hujung medan peperangan ke hujung yang lain untuk mengingatkan tenteranya supaya benar-benar berjihad di jalan Allah semata-mata. Ia juga akan pergi ke seluruh pelosok tanah air dengan mata yang berlinang mengajak manusia supaya bangkit membela Islam.

Ketika ia mengepung Acre ia hanya minum, itupun selepas dipaksa oleh doktor peribadinya tanpa makan. Doktor itu berkata bahawa Salahuddin hanya makan beberapa suap makanan semenjak hari Jumaat hingga senin kerena ia tidak mahu perhatiannya kepada peperangan terganggu. (Bahauddin, 1234)

Peperangan Hittin
Satu siri peperangan yang sengit telah berlaku antara tentera Salahuddin dengan tentera Salib di kawasan Tiberias di kaki bukit Hittin. Akhirnya pada 24 Rabiul-Akhir, 583 H, tentera Salib telah kalah. Dalam peperangan ini Raja Kristian yang memerintah Palestin telah dapat di tawan beserta adiknya Reginald dari Chatillon. Pembesar-pembesar lain yang dapat ditawan ialah Joscelin dari Courtenay, Humphrey dari Toron dan beberapa orang ternama yang lain. Ramai juga tentera-tentera Salib berpangkat tinggi telah tertawan. Stanley Lane-Poole menceritakan bahwa dapat dilihat seorang tentera Islam telah membawa 30 orang tentera Kristian yang ditawannya sendiri diikat dengan tali khemah.

Mayat-mayat tentera Kristian bertimbun-timbun seperti batu di atas batu di antara salib-salib yang patah, potongan tangan dan kaki dan kepala-kepala manusia berguling seperti buah tembikai. Dianggarkan 30,000 tentera Kristian telah mati dalam peperangan ini. Setahun selepas peperangan, timbunan tulang dapat dilihat memutih dari jauh.

Kecintaan Salahuddin kepada Islam
Peperangan Hittin telah menyerlahkan kecintaan Salahuddin kepada Islam. Stanley Lane-Poole menulis bahawa Salahuddin berkhemah di medan peperangan semasa peperanggan Hittin. Pada satu ketika setelah khemahnya didirikan diperintahkannya tawanan perang dibawa ke hadapannya. Maka dibawalah Raja Palestin dan Reginald dari Chatillon masuk ke khemahnya. Dipersilakan sang Raja duduk di dekatnya.

Kemudian ia bangun pergi ke hadapan Reginald lalu berkata, "Dua kali aku telah bersumpah untuk membunuh nya. Pertama ketika ia bersumpah akan melanggar dua kota suci dan kedua ketika ia menyerang jamaah haji. Ketahuilah aku akan menuntut bela Muhammad saw atasnya". Lalu ia menghunuskan pedangnya dan memenggal kepala Reginald. Mayatnya kemudian dibawa keluar oleh pengawal dari khemah.

Raja Palestin apabila melihat adiknya dipancung, ia mengeletar kerana menyangka gilirannya akan tiba. Tetapi Salahuddin menjamin tidak akan mengapa-apakannya sambil berkata, "Bukanlah kelaziman seorang raja membunuh raja yang lain, tetapi orang itu telah melanggar segala batas-batas, jadi terjadilah apa yang telah terjadi".

Tindakan Salahuddin adalah disebabkan kebiadaban Reginald kepada Islam dan Nabi Muhammad saw. Bahauddin bin Shaddad, penasihat kepercayaan Salahuddin mencatatkan bila jamaah haji dari Palestin diserang dicederakan tanpa belas kasihan oleh Reginald, di antara tawanannya merayu supaya mereka dikasihani. Tetapi Reginald dengan angkuhnya mengatakan, "Mintalah kepada Nabi kamu, Muhammad, untuk menyelematkan kamu". Ketika ia mendengar berita ini ia telah berjanji akan membunuh Reginald dengan tangannya sendiri apabila ia dapat menangkapnya.

Menawan Baitul Muqaddis
Kemenangan peperangan Hittin telah membuka jalan mudah kepada Salahuddin untuk menawan Baitul Muqaddis. Bahauddin telah mencatatkan bahawa Salahuddin sangat-sangat berhajat untuk menawan baitul Muqaddis hinggakan bukitpun akan mengecut dari bebanan yang dibawa di dalam hatinya. Pada hari jumaat, 27 Rajab, 583H, iaitu pada hari Isra' Mi'raj, Salahuddin telah memasuki banda suci tempat Rasulullah saw. naik ke langit.

Dalam catatan Bahauddin ia menyatakan inilah kemengan atas kemengang. Ramai orang yang terdiri dari ulama, pembesar-pembesar, peniaga dan orang-orang biasa datang merayakan gembira kemenangan ini. Kemudiannya ramai lagi orang datang dari pantai dan hampir semua ulama-ulama dari Mesir dan Syria datang untuk mengucapkan tahniah kepada Salahuddin. Boleh dikatakan hampir semua pembesar-pembesar datang. Laungan "Allahhu Akbar" dan "Tiada tuhan melainkan Allah" telah memenuhi langit.

Selepas 90 tahun kini sembahyang Jumaat telah diadakan semula di Baitul Muqaddid. Salib yang terpampang di 'Dome of Rock' telah diturunkan. Betapa hebatnya peristiwa ini tidak dapat digambarkan. Hanya Allah sahaja yang tahu betapa hebatnya hari itu.

Salahuddin yang Penyayang
Sifat penyayang dan belas kasihan Salahuddin semasa peperangan ini sangat jauh berbeda daripada kekejaman musuh Kristiannya. Ahli sejarah Kristian pun mengakui hal ini. Lane-Poole mengesahkan bahwa kebaikan hati Salahuddin telah mencegahnya daripada membalas dendam. Ia telah menuliskan yang Salahuddin telah menunjukkan ketiggian akhlaknya ketika orang-orang Kristian menyerah kalah. Tenteranya sangat bertanggung jawab, menjaga peraturan di setiap jalan, mencegah segala bentuk kekerasan hinggakan tiada kedengaran orang-orang Kristian diperlakukan tidak baik.

Semua jalan keluar-masuk ke Baitul Muqaddis di tangannya dan seorang yang amanah telah dilantik di pintu Nabi Daud untuk menerima wang tebusan daripada orang-orang Kristian yang ditawan. Lane-Poole juga telah menuliskan bahawa Salahuddin telah mengatakan kepada pegawainya, "Adikku telah membuat infak, Padri besar pun telah benderma. Sekarang giliranku pula". Lalu ia memerintahkan pegawainya mewartakan di jalan-jalan Jerusalem bahawa sesiapa yang tidak mampu membayar tebusan boleh dibebaskan. Maka berbondong-bondonglah orang keluar dari pintu St. Lazarus dari pagi hingga ke malam. Ini merupakan sedekah Salahuddin kepada orang miskin tanpa menghitung bilangan mereka.

Selanjutnya Lane-Poole menuliskan bagaimana pula tindak-tanduk tentera Kristian ketika menawan Baitul Muqaddis kali pertama pada tahun 1099. Telah tercatat dalam sejarah bahawa ketika Godfrey dan Tancred menunggang kuda di jalan-jalan Jerusalem jalan-jalan itu 'tersumbat' dengan mayat-mayat, orang-orang Islam yang tidak bersenjata disiksa, dibakar dan dipanah dari jarak dekat di atas bumbung dan menara rumah-rumah ibadah. Darah yang membasahi bumi yang mengalir dari pembunuhan orang-orang Islam secara beramai-ramai telah mencermarkan kesucian gereja di mana sebelumnya kasih sayang sentiasa diajarkan. Maka sangat bernasip baik orang-orang Kristian apabila mereka dilayan dengan baik oleh Salahuddin.

Lane-Poole juga menuliskan, jika hanya penaklukan Jerusalem sahaja yang diketahui mengenai Salahuddin, maka ia sudah cukup membuktikan dialah seorang penakluk yang paling penyantun dan baik hati di zamannya bahkan mungkin di sepanjang zaman.

Perang Salib Ketiga
Perang Salib pertama ialah kejatuhan Palestin kepada orang-orang Kristian pada tahun 1099 (490H) manakala yang kedua telah dimenangi oleh Salahuddin dalam peperangan Hittin pada tahun 583H (1187M) di mana beberapa hari kemudian ia telah menawan Baitul Muqaddis tanpa perlawanan. Kekalahan tentera Kristian ini telah menggegarkan seluruh dunia Kristian. Maka bantuan dari Eropah telah dicurahkan ke bumi Palestin

Hampir semua raja dan panglima perang dari dunia Kristian seperti Fredrick Barbossa raja Jerman, Richard The Lion raja England, Philips Augustus raja Perancis, Leopold dari Austria, Duke of Burgundy dan Count of Flanders telah bersekutu menyerang Salahuddin yang hanya dibantu oleh beberapa pembesar nya dan saudara maranya serta tentaranya untuk mempertahankan kehormatan Islam. Berkat pertolongan Allah mereka tidak dapat dikalahkan oleh tentera bersekutu yang besar itu.

Peperangan ini berlanjutan selama 5 tahun hingga menyebabkan kedua belah pihak menjadi lesu dan jemu. Akhirnya kedua belah pihak bersetuju untuk memuat perjanjian di Ramla pada tahun 588H. Perjanjian ini mengakui Salahuddin adalah pengusa Palestin seluruhnya kecuali bandar Acra diletakkan di bawah pemerintahan Kristian. Maka berakhirlah peperangan Salib ketiga.

Lane-Poole telah mencatatkan perjanjian ini sebagai berakhirnya Perang Suci yang telah berlajutan selama 5 tahun. Sebelum kemenangan besar Hittin pada bulan Julai, 1187 M, tiada satu inci pun tanah Palestin di dalam tangan orang-orang Islam. Selepas Perjanjian Ramla pada bulan September, 1192 M, keseluruhanya menjadi milik mereka kecuali satu jalur kecil dari Tyre ke Jaffa. Salahuddin tidak ada rasa malu apapun dengan perjanjian ini walaupun sebahagian kecil tanah Palestin masih di tangan orang-orang Kristian.

Atas seruan Pope, seluruh dunia Kristian telah mengangkat senjata. Raja England, Perancis, Sicily dan Austria serta Duke of Burgundy, Count of Flanders dan beratus-ratus lagi pembesar-pembesar telah bersekutu membantu Raja dan Putra Mahkota Palestin untuk mengembalikan kerajaan Jerusalem kepada pemerintahan Kristian. Walau bagaimanapun ada raja yang mati dan ada yang balik dan sebahagian pembesar-pembesar Kristian telah terkubur di Tanah Suci itu, tetapi Tanah Suci itu masih di dalam tangan Salahuddin.

Selanjutnya Lane-Poole mencatatkan, seluruh kekuatan dunia Kritian yang telah ditumpukan dalam peperangan Salib ketiga tidak mengoyangkan kekuatan Salahuddin. Tenteranya mungkin telah jemu dengan peperangan yang menyusahkan itu tetapi mereka tidak pernah undur apabila diseru untuk menjualkan jiwa raga mereka di jalan Tuhan. Tenteranya yang berada jauh di lembah Tigirs di Iraq mengeluh dengan tugas yang tidak henti-henti, tetapi ketaatan meraka yang tidak pernah berbelah bagi.

Bahkan dalam peperangan Arsuf, tenteranya dari Mosil (sebuah tempat di Iraq) telah menunjukkan ketangkasan yang hebat. Dalam peperangan ini, Salahuddin memang boleh memberikan kepercayaan kepada tentra-tenteranya dari Mesir, Mesopotamia, Syria, Kurds, Turkmans, tanah Arab dan bahkan orang-orang Islam dari mana-mana sahaja. Walaupun mereka berlainan bangsa dan kaum tetapi Salahuddin telah dapat menyatukan mereka di atas jalan Tuhan dari pada mula peperangan pada tahun 1187 hinggalah berakhirnya pada tahun 1192.

Lane-Poole juga menuliskan dalam peperangan ini Salahuddin sentiasa syura. Ia mempunyai majlis syura (musyawarah) yang membuat keputusan-keputusan ketenteraan. Kadang-kadang majlis ini membatalkan keputusan Salahuddin sendiri. Dalam majlis ini tiada siapa yang mempunyai suara lebih berat tiada siapa yang lebih mempengaruhi fikiran Salahuddin. Semuanya sama sahaja. Dalam majlis itu ada adiknya, anak-anaknya, anak saudaranya, sahabat-sahabat lamanya, pembesar-pembesar tentera, kadi, bendahari dan setiausaha. Semuanya mempunyai sumbangan yang sama banyak dalam membuat keputusan. Pendeknya semuanya menyumbang dalam kepakaran masing-masing. Walau apa pun perbincangan dan perdebatan dalam majlis itu, mereka memberikan ketaatan mereka kepada Salahuddin.

Kematian Salahuddin
Pada hari Rabu, 27 Safar, 589H, pulanglah Salahuddin ke rahmatullah selepas berhempas pulas mengembalikan tanah air Islam pada usia 57 tahun. Bahauddin bin Shaddad, penasihat utama Salahuddin telah menulis mengenai hari-hari terakhir Salahuddin. Pada malam 27 Safar, 12 hari selepas ia jatuh sakit, ia telah menjadi sangat lemah. Syeikh Abu Ja'afar seorang yang wara' telah diminta menemani Salahuddin di Istana supaya jika ia nazak, bacaan Qur'an dan syahadah boleh diperdengarkan kepadanya.

Memang pada malam itu telah nampak tanda-tanda berakhirnya hayat Salahuddin. Syeikh Abu Jaafar telah duduk di tepi katilnya semenjak 3 hari yang lepas membacakan Qur'an. Dalam masa ini Salahuddin selalu pingsan dan sedar sebentar. Apabila Syeikh Au Jaafar membacakan ayat, "Dialah Allah, tiada tuhan melainkan Dia, Yang mengetahui yang ghaib dan yang nyata" (Al-Hasyr: 22), Salahuddin membuka matanya sambil senyum, mukanya berseri dan denga nada yang gembira ia berkata, "Memang benar". Selepas ia mengucapkan kata-kata itu rohnya pun kembali ke rahmatullah. Masa ini ialah sebelum subuh, 27 Safar.

Seterusnya Bahauddin menceritakan Salahuddin tidak meninggalkan harta kecuali satu dinar dan 47 dirham ketika ia wafat. Tiada rumah-rumah, barang-barang, tanah, kebun dan harta-harta lain yang ditinggalkan nya. Bahkan harta yang ditinggalkannya tidak cukup untuk ongkos pengkebumiannya. Keluarganya terpaksa meminjam wang untuk menanggung ongkos pengkebumian ini. Bahkan kain kafan pun diberikan oleh seorang menterinya.

Salahuddin yang Wara'
Bahauddin bin Shaddad, penasihat utama Salahuddin telah mencatatkan berkenaan kewarakan Salahuddin. Satu hari ia berkata bahawa ia telah lama tidak pergi sembahyang berjemaah. Ia memang suka sembahyang berjemaah, bahkan ketika sakitnya ia akan memaksa dirinya berdiri di belakang imam. Disebabkan sembahyang adalah ibadah utama yang diasaskan oleh Rasulullah saw, ia sentiasa mengerjakan sembahyang sunnat malam. Jika disebabkan hal tertentu ia tidak dapat sembahyang mala, ia akan menunaikannya ketika hampir subuh. Bahauddin melihatnya sentiasa sembahyang di belakang imam ketika sakitnya, kecuali tiga terakhir di mana ia telah tersangat lemah dan selalu pingsan.

Tetapi ia tidak pernah tinggal sembahyang fardhu. Ia tidak pernah membayar zakat kerana ia tidak mempunyai harta yang cukup nisab. Ia sangat murah hati dan akan menyedekahkah apa yang ada padanya kepada fakir miskin dan kepada yang memerlukan hinggakan ketika wafatnya ia hanya memiliki 47 dirham wang perak dan satu dinar wang emas. Ia tidak meninggalkan harta.

Bahauddin juga mencatatkan bahawa Salahuddin tidak pernah meninggalkan puasa Ramadhan kecuali hanya sekali apabila dinasihatkan oleh Kadi Fadhil. Ketika sakitnya pun ia berpuasa sehinggalah doktor menasihat kannya dengan keras supaya berbuka. Lalu ia berbuka dengan hati yang berat sambil berkata, "Aku tak tahu bila ajal akan menemuiku". Maka segera ia membayar fidyah.

Dalam catatan Bahauddin juga menunjukkan Salahuddin teringin sangat menunaikan haji ke Mekah tetapi ia tidak pernah berkesempatan. Pada tahun kewatannya, keinginannya menunaikan haji telah menjadi-jadi tetapi ditakdirkan. Ia sangat gemar mendengar bacaan Qur'an. Dalam medan peperangan ia acap kali duduk mendegar bacaan Qur'an para pengawal yang dilawatnya sehingga 3 atau 4 juzu' semalam. Ia mendengar dengan sepenuh hati dan perhatian sehingga air matanya membasahi dagunya.

Ia juga gemar mendengar bacaan hadis Rasulullah saw. Ia akan memerintahkan orang-orang yang bersamanya duduk apabila hadis dibacakan. Apabila ulama hadis datang ke bandar, ia akan pergi mendengar kuliahnya. Kadang kadang ia sendiri membacakan hadis dengan mata yang berlinang. Dalam peperangan kadang-kadang ia berhenti di antara musuh-musuh yang datang untuk mendengarkan hadis-hadis dibacakan kepadanya.

Salahuddin sangat yakin dan percaya kepada pertolongan Allah. Ia biasa meletakkan segala harapan nya kepada Allah terutama ketika dalam kesusahan. Pada satu ketika ia berada di Jerusalem yang pada masa itu seolah-olah tidak dapat bertahan lagi daripada kepungan tentera bersekutu Kristian. Walaupun keadaan sangat terdesak ia enggan untuk meninggalkan kota suci itu. Malam itu adalah malam Jumaat musim sejuk. Bahaauddin mencatatkan, "Hanya aku dan Salahuddin sahaja pada masa itu. Ia menghabis kan masa malam itu dengan bersembahyang dan munajat.

Pada tengah malam saya minta supaya ia berehat tetapi jawanya, "Ku fikir kau mengantuk. Pergilah tidur sejenak". Bila hampis subuh akupun bangun dan pergi mendapatkannya. Aku dapati ia sedang membasuh tangannya. "Aku tidak tidur semalam" katanya. Selepas sembahyang subuh aku berkata kepadanya, "Kau kena munajat kepada Allah memohon pertolongan-Nya". Lalu ia bertanya, "Apa yang perlu ku lakukan?"

Aku menjawab, Hari ini hari Jumaat. Engkau mandilah sebelum pergi ke masjid Aqsa. Keluarkanlah infaq dengan senyap-senyap. Apabila kau tiba di masjid, sembahyanglah dua rakaat selepas azan di tempat Rasulullah saw pernah sembahyang sebelum mi'raj dahulu. Aku pernah membaca hadis doa yang dibuat di tempat itu adalah mustajab. Oleh itu kau bermunajad lah kepada Allah dengan ucapan "Ya Tuhanku, aku telah kehabisan segala bekalanku. Kini aku mohon pertolongan-Mu. Aku menyerahkan diriku kepada-Mu. Aku yakin hanya Engkau sahaja yang boleh menolongku dalam keadaan yang genting ini"

Aku mengatakan kepadanya, "Aku sangat berharap Allah akan mengkabulkan doamu". Lalu Salahuddin melakukan apa yang ku usulkan. Aku berada di sebelahnya ketika dahinya mencecah bumi sambil menangis hingga air matanya mambasahi janggutnya dan menitik ke tempat sembahyang. Aku tidak tahu apa yang didoakannya tetapi aku melihat tanda-tanda doanya dikabulkan sebelum hari itu berakhir. Perbalahan berlaku di antara musuh-musuh yang menatijahkan berita baik bagi kami beberapa hari kemudian. Akhirnya mereka membuka khemah-khemah mereka dan berangkat ke Ramla pada hari Isnin pagi"

Perangai Salahuddin
Siapa yang rapat dengannya mengatakan ia adalah seorang Islam yang taat kepada Allah, sangat peka kepada keadilan, pemurah, lembut hati, sabar dan tekun. Bahauddin bin bin Shaddad, penasihat utama Salahuddin telah mencatatkan ia telah memberikan masa untuk rakyat dua kali seminggu, iaitu pada hari Isnin dan Selasa. Pada masa ini ia disertai oleh pembesar-pembesar negara, ulama dan kadi. Semua orang boleh berjumpa dengannya. Ia sendiri akan membacakan aduan yang diterimanya dan mengucapkan untuk dituliskan oleh juru tulis tindakan yang perlu diambil dan terus ditandatanganinya pada masa itu juga. Ia tidak pernah membenarkan orang meninggalkannya selagi ia belum menyempurnakan hajat orang itu. Dalam masa yang sama ia sentiasa bertasbih kepada Allah.

Jika ada orang membuat aduan, ia akan mendegarkan dengan teliti dan kemudian memberikan keputusannya. Sauatu hari seorang lelaki telah membuat aduan berkenaan Taqiuddin, anak saudaranya sendiri. Dengan segera ia memanggil anak saudaranya itu dan meminta penjelasan. Dalam ketika yang lain ada orang yang membuat tuduhan kepada Salahuddin sendiri. Yang memerlukan penyiasatan. Walaupun tuduhan orang itu didapati tidak berasas, ia telah menghadiahkan orang itu sehelai jubah dan beberapa pemberian yang lain.

Ia adalah seorang yang mulia dan baik hati, lemah lembut, penyabar dan sangat benci kepada ketidak adilan. Ia sentiasa mengabaikan kesilapan-kesilapan pembantu-pembantu dan khadam-khadamnya. Jika mereka melakukan kesilapan yang memanaskan hatinya, ia tidak pernah menyebabkan kemarahannya menjatuhkan air muka mereka. Pada suatu ketika ia pernah meminta air minum, tetapi entah apa sebabnya air itu tidak diberikan kepadanya. Ia meminta sehingga lima kali lalu berkata, "Aku hampir mati kehausan". Ia kemudian meminum air yang dibawakan kepadanya tanpa menunjukkan kemarahan.

Dalam ketika yang lain ia hendak mandi selepas mengalami sakit yang agak lama. Didapatinya air yang disediakan agak panas, lalu ia meminta air sejuk. Sebanyak dua kali khadamnya menyebabkan air sejuk terpercik kepadanya. Disebabkan ia belum benar-benar sihat, ia merasa kesejukan tetapi ia hanya berkata kepada khadamnya, "Katakan sajalah kalau kau tak suka kepadaku". Lalu khadam itu cepat-cepat minta maaf dan Salahuddin terus memaafkannya.

Bahauddin juga telah mencatatkan beberapa peristiwa yang menunjukkan sifat pemurah dan baik hati Salahuddin. Kadang-kadang kawasan yang baru ditawannya pun diberikannya kepada pengikutnya. Satu ketika ia telah berjaya menawan bandar 'Amad. Lalu seorang perwira tentera, Qurrah Arslan, menyatakan keinginannya untuk memerintah bandar itu. Dengan senang hati ia memberikannya. Bahkan dalam beberapa ketika ia menjualkan hartanya semata-mata untuk membeli hadiah. Melihat betapa pemurahnya Salahuddin, bendaharinya selalu merahsiakan baki wang simpanan untuk digunakan semasa kecemasan.

Jika ia tahu, ia akan menyedekahkan khazanah negara sehingga habis. Salahuddin pernah mengatakan ada orang baginya wang dan debu sama sahaja. "Aku tahu", kata Bahauddin, "Ia mengatakan dirinya". Salahuddin tidak pernah membiarkan tetamunya meninggalkannya tanpa hadiah atau sebarang bentuk pemberian tanda penghargaan, walaupun tamunya itu seorang kafir. Raja Saida pernah melawat Salahuddin dan ia menyambutnya dengan tangat terbuka, melayannya dengan hormat dan mengambil kesempatan menerangkan Islam. Bahkan Salahuddin sentiasa mengirimkan ais dan buah-buahan kepada Richard the Lion, musuh ketatnya, ketika Raja inggeris itu sakit.

Hatinya memang sangat lembut hingga ia sangat mudah terkesan apabila melihat orang dalam kesusahan dan kesedihan. Suatu hari seorang perempuan Kristian datang mengadu kehilangan bayinya. Perempuan itu menangis dan meraung di depan Salahuddin sambil menceritakan bayinya dicuri dari khemahnya. Perempuan itu seterusnya mengatakan ia telah dimaklumkan hanya Salahuddin sahaja yang boleh mendapatkan bayi itu kembali. Hatinya tersentuh mendengar cerita perempuan itu lalu iapun turut menangis. Ia segera memerintah kan pegawai-pegawainya mencari bayi itu di pasar hamba-sahaya. Tidak lama kemudian bayi itu telah dapat dibawa kembali lalu dengan rasa gembira mendoakan kesejahteraan Salahuddin.

Bahauddin juga mencatatkan Salahuddin sangat kasihan belas kepada anak-anak yatim. Bila ia terjumpa anak-anak yatim ia akan menguruskan supaya ada orang menjadi penjaga anak itu. Kadang-kadang ia sendiri yang akan menjaga dan membesarkan anak yatim yang ditemuinya. Ia juga sangat kasihan melihat orang tua atau yang kurang upaya dan akan memberikan penjagaan yang khas kepada mereka apabila ia bertemu dengan orang sedemikian.

Kesungguhan dan Semangat
Ketika mengepung bandar Acre, Bahauddin mencatatkan bahawa Salahuddin mengidap sakit berat yang menyebabkan beliau sangat susah untuk bangun. Meskipun demikian, ia keluar menunggang kudanya untuk memeriksa angkatan tenteranya. Bahauddin bertanya kepadanya bagaimana ia boleh menahan sakitnya. Maka Salahuddin menjawab, "Penyakit akan meninggalkanku apabila kamu menunggang kuda".

Dalam ketika yang lain ia sebenarnya dalam keadaan yang lemah akibat sakit tetapi pergi memburu musuh sepanjang malam. "Apabila ia sakit", kata Bahauddin, Aku dan doktor akan bersamanya sepanjang malam. Ia tidak dapat tidur akibat menahan sakit, tetapi apabila pagi menjelang, ia akan menunggang kuda untuk melawan musuh. Ia menghantar anak-anaknya ke medan perang sebelum memerintahkan orang lain berbuat demikian. Aku dan doktornya bersamanya sepanjang hari menunggang kuda sehinggalah musuh berundur apabila senja menjelang. Ia hanya akan kembali ke khemah selepas memberikan arahan untuk kawalan keselamatan pada waktu malam".

Dalam kesungguhan, semangat dan ketahanan rasanya tiada siapa yang boleh menandingi Salahuddin. Kadang-kadang ia sediri pergi ke kawasan perkhemahan tentera musuh bersama perisik-perisiknya sekali bahkan dua kali sehari. Ketika berperang ia sendiri akan pergi merempun celah-celah tentera musuh yang sedang mara. Ia sentiasa mengadakan pemeriksaan ke atas setiap tenteranya dan memberikan arahan kepada panglima-panglima tenteranya. Bahauddin ada mencatatkan satu kisah yang menunjukkan betama beraninya Salahuddin. Salahuddin diberitahu bahawa ia selalu mendengar bacaan hadis pada masa lapang bukannya ketika perang. Apabila mendengar perakara ini ia segera mengarahkan supaya hadis-hadis dibacakan kepadanya ketika peperangan sedang berkecamuk dengan sengitnya.

Salahuddin tidak pernah gentar dengan ramainya tentera Salib yang datang untuk menentangnya. Dalam bebeerapa ketika, tentera Salib berjumah sehingga 600,000 orang, tetapi Salahuddin menghadapinya dengan tentera yang jauh lebih sedikit. Berkat pertolongan Allah ia menang, membunuh ramai musuh dan membawa ramai tawanan. Ketika mengepung Acre, pada satu petang lebih dari 70 kapal tentera musuh beserta senjata berat mendarat pada satu petang.

Boleh dikatakan semua orang merasa gentar kecuali Salahuddin. Dalam satu peperangan yang sengit semasa kepungan ini, serangan mendadak besar-besaran dari musuh telah menyebabkan tentera Islam kalang kabut. Tentera musuh telah merempuh khemah-khemat tentera Islam bahkan telah sampai ke khamah Salahuddin dan mencabut benderanya. Tetapi Salahuddin bertahan dengan teguhnya dan berjaya mengatur tenteranya kembali sehingga ia berjaya membalikkan kekalahan menjadi kemenangan. Musuh telah kalah teruk dan berundur meninggalkan lebih kurang 7,000 mayat-mayat.

Bahauddin ada mencatatkan betapa besarnya cita-cita Salahuddin. Suatu hari Salahuddin pernah berkata kepadanya, "Aku hendak beri tahu padamu apa yang ada dalam hatiku. Apabila Allah mentakdirkan seluruh tanah suci ini di bawah kekuasaanku, aku akan serahkan tanah-tanah kekuasaanku ini kepada anak-anakku, ku berikan arahan-arahanku yang terakhir lalu ku ucapkan selamat tinggal. Aku akan belayar untuk menaklukkan pulau-pulau dan tanah-tanah. Aku tak akan meletakkan senjata ku selagi masih ada orang-orang kafir di atas muka bumi atau jika ajalku sampai

Salahuddin sebagai ulama
Salahuddin memiliki asas pengetahuan agama yang kukuh. Ia juga mengetahui setiap suku-suku kaum Arab dan adat-adat mereka. Bahkan ia mengetahui sifat-sifat kuda Arab walaupun ia sebenarnya orang Kurd. Ia sangat gemar mengumpulkan pengetahuan dan maklumat dari kawan-kawannya dan utusan-utusannya yang sentiasa berjalan dari satu penjuru ke satu penjuru negerinya. Di samping Qur'an ia juga banyak menghafal syair-syair Arab.

Lane-Poole juga ada menuliskan bahawa Salahuddin berpengetahuan yang dalam dan gemar untuk mendalami lagi bidang-bidang akidah, ilmu hadis serta sanad-sanad dan perawi-perawinya, syariah dan usul figh dan juga tafsir Qur'an.

[Petikan dari Abul Hassan Ali Nadwai. Judul asli: Saviors of Islamic Spirit.]

Saad bin Amir al-Jumahi

Saad bin Amir al-Jumahi memeluk Islam sebelum kejatuhan Khaibar iaitu pada bulan Safar, 7 Hijrah. Di kalangan sahabat namanya tidak terlalu menonjol. Namun begitu sejarah kehidupan Saad penuh dengan contoh teladan. Beberapa kejadian dalam kehidupan Saad dapat mengungkapkan mengenai ketinggian peribadinya. Dalam aspek kepimpinan adalah yang paling menonjol. Sebagai pemimpin umat beliau memiliki beberapa sifat yang terpuji.

Pertama, Saad tidak memandang jawatan sebagai harta perhiasan dunia yang perlu dikejar serta dibanggakan. Sewaktu Umar bin Khattab menjadi khalifah, Saad dilantik sebagai Gabenor Homs. Sejak awal lagi, dia keberatan untuk menerima perlantikan itu. Katanya kepada Amirul Mukminin, “Janganlah saya dihadapkan kepada fitnah!”. Mendengar jawapan itu Umar berkata, “Tidak, demi Allah aku tidak mahu melepaskan kamu! Apakah kamu hendak membebankan amanah dan khilafah di atas bahuku, kemudian kamu meninggalkan aku?”. Akhirnya dengan rasa berat dia menerima juga perlantikan itu.

Kedua, tanggungjawab terhadap amanah merupakan sifat yang dijunjung tinggi oleh Saad. Dengan itu dia berupaya mengerahkan segala kemampuannya sebaik mungkin, termasuk kewangan. Dia beusaha pula mengendali serta menjelaskan sikapnya kepada isterinya. Sebaik saja perlantikan dibuat, Saad dan isterinya berangkat ke Kota Homs. Khalifah membekalkannya wang secukupnya serta keperluan hidupnya yang lain.
Suatu ketika apabila kedudukan Saad telah agak kukuh, isterinya mengemukakan satu permintaan. Dia ingin membeli pakaian, perabot rumah tangga menggunakan sebahagian harta yang dikumpulkan. Melihat keinginan isterinya itu, Saad berkata “Mahukah aku tunjukkan yang lebih baik daripada rancanganmu itu? Kita berada di satu negeri yang sangat pesat dengan urusan jual beli yang menguntungkan. Lebih baik kita serahkan harta kita sehingga keuntungan yang besar akan selalu kita perolehi!”.

Mendengar janji yang sangat menarik itu, isterinya menerima cadangan itu dan menyerahkan wang kepada Saad. Waktu terus berlalu. Setiap kali si isteri bertanya mengenai wang simpanannya, Saad menyatakan keadaannya baik dan berjalan lancar. Bahkan urusniaga dari sehari ke sehari semakin bertambah dan banyak keuntungan yang diperolehi. Kerana Saad selalu memberi jawapan demikian, pada satu hari isterinya bertanya kepada salah seorang sahabat yang mengetahui kedudukan hal yang sebenar. Setelah didesak, akhirnya sahabat itu memberitahu bahawa Saad telah menginfaqkan hartanya di jalan Allah SWT.

Mendengar itu, berlinanglah air mata si isteri kerana Saad telah mengurangkan modal untuk ‘perniagaan’ tersebut dan dia tidak mungkin akan ‘mendapat semula’ wang itu. Melihatkan kekecewaan isterinya, Saad berkata, “Bukankah kamu tahu bahawa di dalam syurga itu terdapat banyak gadis cantik bermata jeli hingga seandainya seorang saja di antara mereka menampakkan wajahnya di muka bumi ini maka akan terang benderanglah seluruh permukaannya dan tentulah cahayanya akan mengalahkan sinar matahari dan bulan. Oleh itu mengorbankan dirimu demi mendapatkan mereka tentu lebih wajar dan lebih utama daripada mengorbankan mereka untuk mendapatkan dirimu”.

Ketiga, Saad bukanlah jenis pegawai yang menafkahkan hartanya sekadar sebagai simbolik sedangkan sebenarnya dia berupaya mengumpulkan harta sebanyak-banyaknya. Pengorbanannya sebagai seorang pemimpin begitu besar dan harga dirinya begitu tinggi sehingga Umar sendiri pun terkejut mendengar mengenai kehidupan runah tangga Saad.
Suatu ketika Umar mengirim wakil ke Homs untuk meninjau keadaan pemerintahan di sana. Ketika wakil itu kembali ke Madinah, Umar meminta senarai penduduk Homs yang tergolong dalam kategori fakir miskin. Sewaktu Umar meneliti laporan itu, dia ternampak nama Saad dimasukkan sebagai orang yang perlu mendapat bantuan kerana kemiskinannya. Umar bertanya kepada wakil itu, “Betulkah gabenor kamu ini miskin?”. Jawab mereka, “Benar, ya Amirul Mukminin. Demi Allah di rumahnya selalu tidak kelihatan tanda-tanda api menyala (tidak memasak)!”.

Mendengar jawapan itu, menitislah air mata Umar. Dia menyuruh wakilnya menyerahkan uncang berisi wang untuk bekal kehidupan Saad. Saad bin Amir al-Jumahi

Sewaktu menerima kiriman daripada Umar itu, Saad mengucapkan, “Innalillahi wa inna ilaihi roji’un!”. Dia terus memanggil isterinya dan mengarahkannya supaya membahagikan wang itu kepada fakir miskin.

Keempat, Saad sentiasa bersifat berlapang dada terhadap pelbagai kritikan yang datang daripada rakyatnya. Sebenarnya memang sebelum kedatangan Saad pun, penduduk Homs sudah terkenal sebagai golongan yang banyak menuntut itu dan ini. Homs pada ketika itu dikenali sebagai Kuwaifah (Kufah kecil) kerana penduduknya yang mirip dengan orang Kufah, iaitu senang melapor kepada pemerintah pusat akan kelemahan yang dianggap ada pada gabenor mereka.

Suatu ketika Umar datang ke Homs. Kesempatan itu digunakannya untuk mendapatkan pandangan rakyatnya. Dalam satu majlis dia mempersilakan rakyat menyampaikan rasa tidak puas hati terhadap pemimpin mereka. Tanpa berselindung sedikit pun mereka mengemukakan empat rungutan kepada khalifah iaitu (1) gabenor baru keluar dari rumah setelah matahari tinggi, (2) tidak bersedia melayani rakyat pada malam hari, (3) dalam sebulan ada sehari tidak datang ke pejabat sehari penuh dan (4) kadangkala gabenor jatuh pengsan di hadapan umum.

Umar menerima kritikan itu dan kemudian mempersilakan Saad mengajukan pembelaannya. Saad berkata, “Mengenai tuduhan mereka bahawa saya tidak hendak keluar sebelum matahari tinggi, maka demi Allah, sebetulnya saya tidak hendak menyebutkannya…keluarga kami tidak memiliki pembantu. Oleh itu setiap pagi terpaksa saya membantu membuat adunan roti terlebih dahulu untuk keluarga saya. Sesudah adunan itu siap dimasak, barulah saya buat roti. Kemudian saya berwuduk untuk solat Dhuha. Sesudah itu saya berangkat ke tempat bertugas.”
Mengenai kritikan kedua, saya telah membahagi waktu saya. Siang hari untuk melayani masyarakat dan malam hari untuk bertaqarrub ilallah.

Mengenai kritikan ketiga, seperti yang telah saya terangkan tadi, saya tidak mempunyai pelayan atau pembantu rumah tangga. Di samping itu saya hanya memiliki pakaian yang melekat di badan ini. Saya mencucinya sebulan sekali. Bila mencucinya saya menunggu kering terlebih dahulu. Selepas itu barulah saya dapat pergi melayani masyarakat.

Tentang kritikan keempat, ketika saya masih jahiliah saya pernah menyaksikan almarhum Khubaib bin Adi dihukum oleh kaum Quraisy yang kafir. Saya menyaksikan tubuhnya dicincang oleh orang Quraisy. Mereka bawa tubuh itu dengan tandu sambil bertanya kepada Khubaib, ‘Mahukah tempatmu ini diisi oleh Muhammad sebagai gantimu, sedang kamu berada dalam keadaan sihat wal afiat?’ Jawab Khubaib, ‘Demi Allah, saya tidak ingin berada dalam lingkungan anak isteriku diliputi keselamatan dan kesenangan dunia manakala Rasulullah SAW ditimpa bencana walau oleh tusukan duri sekalipun…’

“Setiap kali saya terkenang peristiwa itu tubuh saya gementar kerana takut akan siksa Allah dan saya berasa berdosa kerana pada waktu itu saya tidak dapat membantu Khubaib sedikit pun. Dan saya berasa dosa saya tidak akan diampuni Allah SWT…!”

Saad mengakhiri kata-katanya dengan titisan air mata di kedua belah pipinya. Mendengar alasan Saad itu, Umar pun tidak dapat menahan rasa terharunya. Di peluknya gabenor itu sambil berkata, “Alhamdulillah kerana dengan taufiq-Nya firasatku tidak meleset”.

Bediüzzaman Said Nursi

The Risale-i Nur collection is a six-thousand-page commentary on the Qur'an written by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi in accordance with the mentality of the age. Since in our age, faith and Islam have been the objects of the attacks launched in the name of so called science and logic, Bedizzaman Said Nursi therefore concentrated in the Risale-i Nur on proving the truths of faith in conformity with modern sciences, through rational evidence and by manifesting the miraculous aspects of the Qur'an that relate primarily to our century. This collection now has millions of readers both in and outside Turkey.

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